Discussion

In the present study we determined that the development of mouse embryos derived by either natural mating or IVF was negatively affected by immunoneutralization of mitogenic growth factors and their receptor. Treatment with immunoneutralizing antibodies to EGF, TGFa, and EGFR decreased the rate of development of 1-cell-stage embryos to blastocysts, reduced the total number of differentiated cells in the ICM and TE, decreased cell size, reduced the ICM:TE ratio, and increased the fragmentation of nuclear DNA (that is, apoptosis). These differences were accentuated, in most cases, when embryos were treated simultaneously with neutralizing antibodies to both EGF and TGFa. In vitro-fer-tilized embryos appeared to be more sensitive than in vivo-de-rived embryos to immunoneutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the negative effect of neutralizing antibodies to mitgoegnic growth factors on the growth and differentiation characteristics of fertilized embryos indicates a direct relationship between the actions of EGF and TGFa and normal development of mouse embryos.

In comparison, the changes observed in ICNI-derived cloned mouse embryos were very similar to those in both in vivo-derived and in vitro-fertilized embryos after immunoneutralization of mi-togenic growth factors. Cloned embryos showed reductions in the rate of blastocyst development, numbers and ratio of ICM and TE cells, and total number of differentiated cells and increases in the frequency of apoptotic nuclei identical to those after combined treatment of fertilized embryos with neutralizing antibodies to EGF and TGFa. Except for the mean number of apoptotic cells in in vitro-fertilized embryos, the similarities between fertilized and cloned embryos were made only after combined antibody treatment. These results are consistent with findings from our previous study in which ICNI-derived cloned embryos exhibited reduced levels of expression of EGF, TGFa, and EGFR. If you are unable to get erections of the same hardness as before, you need to make sure there is enough Viagra Soft Tabs Canadian Pharmacy for you to take. Viagra Soft Tabs Canadian Pharmacy treatment is something millions of males are taking advantage of, so it may be your time to forget about the underlying causes and embarrassment, taking this drug as prescribed and knowing it will work.

Although the etiology remains unknown, these results strongly suggest that altered expression of EGF, TGFa, and EGFR is related to poor development of cloned mouse embryos.

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